Everything You Need To Know About Caryophyllene Oxide And Its Benefits
As we unravel Cannabis's unparalleled versatility, we start to understand that other compounds play a crucial role in the plant's therapeutic outcomes.
The combined effect produced from the different chemical compounds like terpenes, cannabinoids, and flavonoids is being closely studied and commonly identified as the entourage effect (Russo, 2011).
Cannabinoids and Terpenes are produced alongside the glandular trichomes of the cannabis flower. Terpenes determine the smell and taste of different strains and play a crucial role in the cannabis experience (Witheley, 2017).
The terpene caryophyllene oxide is present in many spices like basil, black pepper, and oregano, among other cannabis strains. It delivers a spicy, woody, funky warmth similar to cinnamon and cloves aroma.
This article will explore the latest evidence supporting the potential of the terpene Caryophyllene Oxide, its uses, and its benefits within the Cannabis Plant.
What is Caryophyllene Oxide?
Caryophyllene oxide is a sesquiterpene that results from the oxidation of β-caryophyllene, which can occur during the harvest's cure. It is also considered non-toxic, non-sensitizing, and has been indicated as an anticoagulant with platelets.
Caryophyllene oxide is present in plants' profiles like eucalyptus, lemon balm, oregano, wormwood, rosemary, guava, black pepper, and clove. It has been used in cosmetics, drugs, food preservatives, and for training drug-sniffing dogs by law enforcement.
This terpene interacts with the endocannabinoid system by biding directly with CB2 receptors. Like other terpenes, its benefits include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-bacterial properties. It has been compared to ciclopirox olamine and sulconazole as an antifungal, mainly used in toenail fungus treatment and other skin and nail fungi.
Caryophyllene Oxide Rich Cannabis Cultivars
Strains with high levels of Caryophyllene Oxide include:
● Grape Inferno
● Purple Punch
● Purple Wookie
Caryophyllene Oxide Synergies
As mentioned earlier, this terpene results from the oxidation of β-caryophyllene. Cannabis Strains Like ACDC and Blueberry Seagal are known to have Caryophyllene Oxide in their profile. Besides, it has exceptional synergies with other cannabinoids. For example: combined with CBC or CBG works as an antifungal, with THC as an anticoagulant, and CBGA and THCA as insecticidal.
Caryophyllene Oxide Benefits
Many terpenes have similar benefits. However, we are in the infancy stages of understanding their full potential and their interactions. Caryophyllene Oxide has been identified to be beneficial as:
A recent study by the National Science Council of ROC, suggests that isolated Caryophyllene oxide showed significant anti-platelet aggregation activity, indicating it could potentially prevent coagulation of the blood (Yang, Millet-Clerc, Chaumont, & Michel, 1999).
Like many other terpenes, Carypohyllene can help potentiate anti-cancer drug efficacy. For example, it can enhance the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin in the treatment of intestinal cancer cells. Besides, combined with doxorubicin and paclitaxel shows anticancer activities on human leukemia, multiple myeloma, and human prostate cancer cell lines. In general, Caryophyllene has "equally strong (or even stronger) anticancer activity than [β-caryophyllene]." Further research is needed to determine if it prevents cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. ( Sain, S., 2014)
Caryophyllene Oxide is also known for its antifungal properties. When tested on nail and skin fungi, the terpene's antifungal activity is comparable to fungal treatment drugs, such as ciclopirox olamine and sulconazole (yang, Millet-Clerc, Chaumont, & michel, 1999).
Another benefit of Caryophyllene Oxide is its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Caryophyllene oxide combined with unsaponified petroleum ether extract showed significant central and peripheral analgesic, along with the anti-inflammatory activity. These activities of caryophyllene oxide were comparable with the standard drug used in the respective experiments(Javed, Azimullah, Haque, & Ojha, 2016).
**Note: As always, with medical conditions and symptoms, please consult with your doctor for personalized medical advice. The Food and Drug Administration has not evaluated the statements made regarding these products. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Russo, E., (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British Journal of Pharmacology. (163)7: 1344-1364.
Stahl, E. and Kunde, R. “Die Leitsubstanzen der Haschisch-Suchhunde [Leading Substances for Hashish Narcotic Dogs.].” Kriminalistik, vol. 9, 1973, pp. 385-388.
Yang, Millet-Clerc, Chaumont, J., & Michel. (1999, November). Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11189747/
Sain, S. et al. “Beta-Caryophyllene and Caryophyllene Oxide, Isolated from Aegle Marmelos, as the Potent Anti-inflammatory Agents against Lymphoma and Neuroblastoma Cells.” Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 13, 2014, pp. 45-55. [journal impact factor = 0.865; times cited = 11 (SemanticScholar)]
Javed, H., Azimullah, S., Haque, M., & Ojha, S. (2016, August 2). Cannabinoid Type 2 (CB2) Receptors Activation Protects against Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation Associated Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Rotenone Model of Parkinson's Disease.